Basal cell skin cancer is characterized by a rather rare metastasis and at first glance does not seem to be such a dangerous disease, but this is far from the case. Without proper therapy, it can lead to severe skin damage. With the worst prognosis, the consequence of basalioma is the destruction of the underlying cartilage and bone tissue.
What is the cause of basal cell carcinoma?
Most often, basal cell carcinoma is provoked by prolonged ultraviolet radiation, so most often it occurs on open areas of the skin. In addition, chemical carcinogens, ionizing radiation, immunosuppression, exposure to retroviruses, and genetic predisposition contribute to the development of basal cell carcinoma.
Basalioma occurs in both men and women in approximately equal proportions. People over 50 are especially susceptible to it. Most blond patients with fair skin and blue eyes are automatically at risk. According to numerous studies, basalioma is more common in the southern regions in fair-skinned and blue-eyed residents.
Basal cell carcinoma treatment should be started as soon as possible, since in advanced cases, the disease is more difficult to treat.
The choice of treatment for basal cell carcinoma depends on the clinical form, size and location of the tumor, the patient’s age, and comorbidities. Modern methods of treating basalioma include:
- radiation therapy;
- photodynamic therapy;
- laser therapy;
- radio wave therapy;
- drug treatment.
- All of them are aimed at the destruction of the pathological focus. However, surgical excision remains the most radical treatment for basal cell skin cancer.
Get a treatment program
Is it possible to prevent the development of basal cell carcinoma?
The best way to reduce the risk of basal cell cancer is to avoid exposure to sunlight and strictly observe personal hygiene measures when working with substances that contain carcinogens. People at risk should be sure to carry out regular self-examinations: long-standing redness on the skin and non-healing wounds can become an alarming sign. In this connection, when such foci appear, it is necessary to contact an oncologist.
Skin Cancer Causes
There are several main causes of skin cancer:
- Prolonged exposure to UV radiation on unprotected skin. This can be intense tanning or frequent visits to the solarium. Under the influence of UV rays, the DNA of cells is damaged. At the same time, mutations arise that activate oncogenes and “turn off” genes that suppress tumors. For example, in squamous cell carcinoma, the activity of the TP53 suppressor gene, which causes the death of cells with damaged DNA, is often suppressed. Basal cell carcinoma often has a mutation in the PTCH1 gene, which controls cell proliferation.
- Exposure to ionizing radiation. This can be work related to X-ray radiation, with open radiation sources. A history of radiation therapy also increases the risk of skin cancer.
- Immunodeficiency states, both congenital and acquired (HIV, organ transplantation, the need for cytostatic therapy, etc.).
- Chronic skin trauma, such as rubbing with shoes or clothing.
- Contact with chemical carcinogens – soot, coal dust, paraffin, tar, household chemicals, etc.
- Human papillomavirus infection with high oncogenic risk.
- Presence of precancerous skin diseases – leukoplakia, cutaneous horn, pigmented xeroderma, etc.