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Vaginosis is a vaginal infection without signs of inflammation and is caused by an association of microorganisms. In vaginosis, no specific pathogens (trichomonas, fungi, gonococci, etc.) are found in the vaginal smear. In most cases it helps against vaginosis:

The normal vaginal microflora is represented by lactobacilli or Döderlein bacilli, which make up 95%, the rest are opportunistic bacteria (peptococci, staphylococci, streptococci, mobilincus, gardnerella and others).

The role of lactobacilli is to provide an acidic environment for the contents of the vagina. During their life activity Döderlein bacilli produce lactic acid, which explains the acidity of the environment (pH 3.5-4.5), which prevents the reproduction of opportunistic microflora and causes the death of sperm (only the most active and strong sperm passing through this barrier).

In addition, lactobacilli produce hydrogen peroxide and lysozyme, which helps wash pathogenic flora from the vagina, and helps stimulate local immunity – the production of interferon increases (it helps at the cellular level to resist viruses) and activates macrophages (cells that “digest” toxic and foreign particles for the body).

As noted above, vaginosis is caused by a community of pathogenic microorganisms (most commonly Gardnerella and Mobiluncus). Predisposing factors for the development of the disease include:

A promiscuous sexual life and a large number of partners;
Failure to follow the rules of intimate hygiene;
Frequent and uncontrolled douches (wash out the lactic acid bacteria);
Taking antibiotics, hormonal drugs;
Certain periods in a woman’s life occurring with changes in hormonal background (puberty, menopause, pregnancy);
improper diet;
wearing tight underwear;
weakening of the immune system;
intestinal diseases and associated dysbacteriosis;

Wearing an intrauterine device.
Approximately 50% of patients with vaginosis are asymptomatic.

If there are strong clinical signs, the main symptom is the vaginal discharge, which at the beginning of the disease is white or grayish, frothy and with an unpleasant odor of “rotten fish”.

Vaginal discharge is profuse, their volume reaches 20 ml per day (normally the discharge should not be more than 2 ml). As vaginosis progresses, the discharge becomes thicker and stickier, it becomes yellow or greenish in color. Many women complain of itching and burning sensation in the vagina, disorders of urination (it becomes more frequent), pain during intercourse.

On gynecological examination, you can see that the urine is evenly distributed throughout the mucous membrane and can be easily removed with a tampon. The mucous membrane has a normal pink color (no hyperemia, edema), which indicates the absence of inflammation. The external genitalia and the urethra are also unchanged.